American Military

Please discuss the issue of how American military forces should be employed in conflict abroad. Is it strictly the president’s call? What is Congress’s role? Are the restrictions in the War Powers Resolution of 1973 realistic? How should this issue be resolved?

The deployment of American military force should not only be based on the interest of America but the interest of the entire international community who will be directly or indirectly be affected by the action. A clear cost benefit analysis needs to be conducted to ensure that the benefits of using the military force far much outweigh the shortfalls. The presidents is responsible for giving orders on whether to deploy military action or not, but this needs to be done in consultation with the federal government as well as the Security Council (Mason, 2010).

The Constitution of the United States of America empowers the president to call for military action as the commander in chief. The constitution also gives powers to the Congress to declare wars. It has the ability to authorize hostilities at any level and fund them. In case of military attack within and outside U.S, the president has the legal mandate of ordering the U.S troop to attack their opponents in full combat. Since World War 2, the president of the United States of America has been given a big mandate of waging war. Since 1789, the United States president has been the commander in chief. Currently the president of U.S cannot just wage without the involvement of the congress unlike in the post-World War 2 era.   The constitution requires the contribution of the congress before a decision is made concerning the deployment of military force (Mason, 2010).

The 1973 war power resolution was introduced after thousands of US soldiers were killed. It required the president to consult the congress before deployment of the military outside US. This resolution has not worked since US presidents have often deployed the US of force without authorization of the Congress (Mason, 2010). For instance, Clinton ordered air strike on Serbia without the authority of the congress during his tenure as the president of US.

 

Kelo vs. the City of New London

Adjudication refers to the legal process of solving disputes. The US Supreme Court plays the role of adjudicating on petitions that have been brought forward by petitioners who are not convinced of decisions of the lower courts.

In the case against Kelo and the city of New London, the petitioners were petitioning the ruling of allowing the city of New London to acquire and develop land which rightfully belongs to them. An independent agency was hired by the city of New London for the revitalization of one its waterfront properties. The aim of the revitalization was creation of jobs and generation of revenue from taxes. The agency needed to accomplish this project by acquiring land. It was given the mandate to buy land. It managed to buy most of the property, but a few property owners refused to give out their properties. The supreme court of Connecticut agreed with the city of New London on this case since it was for the best interest of the city. The court claimed that the intention of the city of New London was in accordance with the Fifth Amendment. The ruling was petitioned in the Supreme Court of the United States of America. The US Supreme Court sustained the ruling of the Connecticut Supreme Court. It supported it ruling by say that the city of New London had a justified action, and it was not right to undermine their decision since it was based on the public interest (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).

The legal issue in this case was to consider whether the city of New London, had the the right to consider private property that is used for economical tenacities to be under the public use. The legal holding of the case was that four decisions out of five, the US Supreme Court declared that economic benefits that would be derived  from redevelopment of the property is considered as “public use” under the Fifth Amendment (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).

 

Public Policy on Poverty

Poverty affects millions of people in developing countries. Majority of the people in these countries live on less than one U.S dollar a day, which cannot afford to provide the basic human needs in the current tough economic time (essay help, 2012). Poverty is a condition that is characterized by having insufficient resources required to sustain life or lack basic human needs. There are two types of poverty namely absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is due to lack of basic human needs such as food, shelter and clothing.  It is a major problem that affects developing countries. Relative poverty is whereby a comparison based on resources is done to determine the level of poverty. The degree of poverty in Africa forced major players and stakeholders to formulate policies that are aimed at addressing the poverty situation. Ministries, NGOs and Community Based Organization worked to together in coming up with, and executing economic stimulus programs in various parts of Africa. So far the past policies on poverty have not been effective in solving the problem (Handelman, 2011).

Effective Policies on Poverty

Policies on poverty need to come up with amicable mechanism of solving the problem. Solution can quickly be attained by address the causes and impacts of poverty, followed by the development of mechanism that will be employed to alleviate poverty. Policies that promote economic diversity, education and sustainable development should be implemented to restore growth and development in these nations (Handelman, 2011).

Lobbying and government intervention towards alleviation of poverty

There are a number of options available for governments of developing nation to employ so as to stabilize the economic status of their countries. They can source for donor funds or lend money from World Health Organization or IMF to raise capital needed to drive economic growth in their countries. Developing nations need to adopt education system that equips its citizen with the necessary skills needed to foster development in the nations. Diversification of economic activities will ensure that the nations do not rely on a single good or produce, thereby availing many options in case one fails to meet the expected need (Handelman, 2011).

Which federal agencies and cabinet departments are most important in determining the existence and causes of climate change?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is one of the institutions that deal with climate change issues along other agencies and departments such as the department of agriculture, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), and several other departments in US government (National Academies Press, 2009).
Which ones formulate and execute policies in response to assertions of climate change?

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the main organization that is charged with the responsibility of formulating polies relating to climate change and global warming. It stipulates measure of reducing greenhouse gas emission into the environment. NOAA plays the role of helping society in understanding, planning for, and responding to climate variability and change. The organization achieves this by developing and delivering climate information services, implementing of the global observing system, and conducting focused research and modeling with the aim of understand climatic processes. NOAA is one of the main participating agencies in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) (National Academies Press, 2009).
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Handelman, H. (2011). The Challenge of Third World Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Laschever, E., & Stoebuck, W. B. (2007). Washington regulatory takings: the fallout since Kelo vs. New London. Eau Claire, WI: PESI, LLC ;.

Mason, R. C. (2010). Securing America’s borders the role of the military. Washington, D.C.?: Congressional Research Service. Prentice Hall.

Restructuring federal climate research to meet the challenges of climate change. (2009). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

 

Michigan v. Tyler

The roots of this case generates from a fire incident that occurred on January 21, 1970 when a respondent’s furniture store blazed, to which the local fire department made an immediate response. However, when the fire chief arrived, there were vivid traces of a possible arson and summoned a police detective to investigate a possibility of the same. This was followed by successive investigations which proved fire being set willingly. As explained by international association of fire chiefs, the respondents were changed of conspiracy to burn real property amongst other offenses (2012).

Because arson is a crime, according to the United States constitution its investigations are treated subject to the same limitations as searches of burglary, murder and also assault investigations (Association, 2012). Evidence that was secured from the building and the testimony of the arson specialist was enough to convict the respondents despite their objection that entries to the building were not consented and inspection was not warranted. The state’s Supreme Court made a landmark ruling in 1978 reversing these convictions arguing that if a fire has been extinguished and firefighters have left a premise, a search warrant is required, unless it is consented or the premises have been abandoned. In the respondents trial this has not been adhered to (Champion, 2005).

To cement the same, firefighters and also investigators who enter a building that is blazing can seize evidence in a lawful manner and will be treated in plain view, despite the fact that no search warrant has been obtained (Varone, 2012). However, if this is terminated or a break is taken, to continue with the same warrant has to be issued. Applying the same all entries made after January 22nd were detached from the initial case since they were made without consent violating fourth and fourteenth amendments.

References

Varone, J. C. (2012). Legal considerations for fire and emergency services. Clifton Park,   NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.

International Association of Fire Chiefs., & National Fire Protection Association. (2012).  Chief officer: Principles and practice. Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Champion, D. J. (2005). The American dictionary of criminal justice: Key terms and           major court cases. Los Angeles, Calif: Roxbury Pub.

 

Past performance of United States automakers

Chairperson, organizers, ladies and gentlemen I salute you. I understand you are all sited in here, because you love the performance of this country’s big three motors. In the recent past years, the big three, that is the General Motors, Ford and Chrysler have portrayed an improvement in their financial lifeline. I want to recommend them for that.

We all know that the largest automobile companies in the country are Chrysler, General Motors and Ford. Theses companies have strived their way through an initial tough financial environment to the latest hit of $27.4 financial lifeline. Historically, we can consider their performance as an indicator of the wider American economic spectrum. For them to reach to this point, I want to ascertain that they have interacted wisely with their actors, which are the government and concerned individuals to make ends meet. They adhered to the phenomenon of maximizing the completion of their needs through employment of the scarce resources. This is a recommendable work to them.

For them to hit the $ 27.4 value, I want to acknowledge that they maintained their relationship of demand and supply, bearing in minds the living standards of their immediate customers.  Just to single one of them, Ford Motor firm has so far added more than a thousand jobs at seven Michigan plant. With that, Ford not taking the federal bailout is determined to lead the way.

It is appealing to announce that so far the company has made a sixty-eight percent rose in the third quarter. Understanding the existence of recession in the country, the company innovated a maneuvering way and so they went through the tough times of the economy in early 2000, to get to the point they want. The only duty we have left with is to make sure the expansion of the United States economy is growing. With that few remarks, I say thank you for listening and Gob bless you.

 

Source: AceMyHW

 

 

 

Media Report

Global communication is the capacity of availability and accessibility of information athwart all cultures around reading, speaking and listening. The global communication is a vital knowledge and skills in the world of business whereby business and economic growth are impacted negatively by culture and language. My country, Israel is centrally situated in global communication. It is industrialized and capitalized thus falling in the category of central situated in global communication they are recognized to be wealthy in that the periphery countries and semi-periphery countries depend on them (The Israeli Communications Industry, n.d)

Israel is the country in the world which is media obsessed mostly. People themselves here they consume probably more news than other people in the world on basis of per capita. Individuals are obsessed over media; listening, watching, reading, and interacting with their radios, televisions, computers, cell-phones, newspapers unlike other nations .This is because major cell-phones and computers elements were developed actually in Israel. Statistics suggest that the total yearly Israel telecommunication tools and equipment was roughly $4.3 billion in 1999 with an estimation of 2.9 million major phone lines.  By mid-2000 the general number of cell phones bettered the general number of fixed phones, 3.4 million cellular phone lines. Since them cell phones became the largest composition of telecommunication market in Israel (U.N. Telecom Agency Report, 2012.)

The community of the Israel Palestinian has been exposed to television and radio broadcasts of Palestinian authority. The community of the Israel Arab also has gotten access to the satellite dish to the pan-Islam and pan-Arab oriented broadcasts from Al-Jazeera Qatar-based and MBC which is Lebanon based.  The television satellite outreach broadcasts has increased options of media for the community of Israel’s Arab, shifting the viewers from news programs which are produced locally.

In the realm of print, main newspapers include panaroma, Al-sinarah and kul al-Alab. Starting in 1980’s, news of radio broadcast and television expanded, placing pressure on the industry of newspaper for the competition with the television for the availability of the advertiser. The broadcasters expanded their slots of time; further competing for consumer’s available attention. Rate of the Israel’s internet usage is one of the highest in the world of the penetration rate of 74%. Being the same as in United States and higher than Japan. Again, probably it is two to three times rate of Islamic and Israel’s neighbors, and Iran.

Much of the Israel media appear to be fiercely independent and are owned privately. It fits the model of democratic liberal press. Beyond issues of peace and war, journalists are active on several social issues, resulting continuing and vocal campaigns. It controls and profits from the global market as well as they are known to have a powerful military, strong state institutions and also powerful global political alliances.

The advanced technologies are greatly demanded and several applications Israel-developed can be accessed in products of the multi-national companies in communication, information systems, optics, medicine, consumer goods, computers and software sectors. High-tech industry of Israel is characterized by its manufactured products which are of the high added value and the output rate per employee which is high as compared to other industrial sector (Global Communications Newsletter, p 29-32). Israel has the highest percentage of the scientists in the world, having 135 engineers per the 10,000 citizens compared to United States which has 85 per the 10,000 citizens.

Israel leads Middle East with highest rate of PC’s penetration in private homes. Virtually there is a personal computer for every two household. The educational system in the recent years has bought tens of thousands of the computers to be used the students from the kindergarten through the university age. In comparison to the high-tech tigers like Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia, Israel is the country which is the true high-tech that has highly domestic market which is developed for telecommunications and computing.

The influence of globalization has greatly impacted the landscape of communication; it has resulted to the innovations of different modes of communication such as the internet which has greatly improved the process of communication. Also, it has led to the introduction of the modes of communication to the developing world thus ensuring that the whole world is linked in communication, and people in different spheres can access the same information.

Eventually it has resulted to the increase in delivery of the information to all areas which previously never had access to communication modes such as films, radios and the press among others.  Israel government has played a big role in this; it has a combined motive and policy of promoting a managed and controllable competition in the large telecommunication division (Z. Beers, 21 Feb. 2011.) It has set tight and strict regulations and laws regarding the total number of competitors who are allowed or rather have the permission to each division of communication.

Alongside that the government of has limits to licensing, preventing and restricting players from the completion in more than one market division and also it has regulated tariffs in various divisions of global communication. This has enabled Israel as a country to limit or rather stop flinging open the market to unbridled competition in the global telecommunication sector. Due to its struggle to the art of telecommunication it’s globally oriented her economy transforming her telecommunication division from the lethargic monopolistic state of ownership to a relatively competitive market that offers a wide range of diverse telecommunication services from the creativity and the innovation of the companies within the country (The Israeli Communications Industry, n.d.)   Israel is ranked among the top countries as far as global communication is communication.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References                         

The Israeli Communications Industry. (n.d.). jewishvirtuallibrary. Retrieved January 20, 2014, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Economy/eco2.

World Has About 6 Billion Cell Phone Subscribers, According To U.N. Telecom Agency Report (2012, November 14). Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/11/cell-phones-world-subscribers-six- billion_n_1957173.html 

Z. Beers , Sue . “21st Century Skills.” Preparing Students for THEIR Future . Web, 21 Feb. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <https://www.mheonline.com/glencoemath/pdf/21st_century_skills.pdf>.